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Lopez-Vilchez I, Hedner U, Altisent C, Diaz-Ricart M, Escolar G, Galán AM

Redistribution and hemostatic action of recombinant activated factor VII associated with platelets.

Am. J. Pathol.. 2011 Jun;178(6):2938-48, PMID: 21641410

Clinical evidence accumulated from hemophilic patients during prophylaxis with recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) suggests that the duration of the hemostatic action of rFVIIa exceeds its predicted plasma half-life. Mechanisms involved in this outcome have not been elucidated. We have investigated in vitro the redistribution of rFVIIa in platelets from healthy donors, patients with FVII deficiency, and one patient with Bernard-Soulier syndrome. Platelet-rich plasma was exposed to rFVIIa (3 to 60 μg/mL). Flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and coagulation tests were applied to detect and quantify rFVIIa. The hemostatic effect of rFVIIa associated to platelets was evaluated using perfusion models. Our studies revealed a dose-dependent association of rFVIIa to the platelet cytoplasm with redistribution into the open canalicular system, and α granules. Mechanisms implicated in the internalization are multiple, involve GPIb and GPIV, and require phospholipids and cytoskeletal assembly. After platelet activation with thrombin, platelets exposed rFVIIa on their membrane. Perfusion studies revealed that the presence of 30% of platelets containing FVIIa improved platelet aggregate formation and enhanced fibrin generation (P < 0.01 versus control). Our results indicate that, at therapeutic concentrations, rFVIIa can be internalized into platelets, where it is protected from physiological clearance mechanisms and can still promote hemostatic activity. Redistribution of rFVIIa into platelets may explain the prolonged prophylactic effectiveness of rFVIIa in hemophilia.


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