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Díaz M, Sevilla P, Galán AM, Escolar G, Engel E, Gil FJ

Evaluation of ion release, cytotoxicity, and platelet adhesion of electrochemical anodized 316 L stainless steel cardiovascular stents.

J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B Appl. Biomater.. 2008 Nov;87(2):555-61, PMID: 18536043

316L Stainless steel is one of the most used metallic material in orthopedical prosthesis, osteosinthesis plates, and cardiovascular stents. One of the main problems this material presents is the nickel and chromium release, specially the Ni ion release that provokes allergy in a high number of patients. Recently, experimental applications in vitro and in vivo seem to indicate that the thickness of the nature oxide of the stainless steel results in very strong reinforcement of the biological response and reduce the ion release due to the thicker surface oxide. It is possible to grow the natural chromium oxide layer by electrolytic method such anodization. In this study, two main anodization methods to grow chromium oxide on the 316L stainless steel have been evaluated. Nickel and Chromium ions release in human blood at 37 degrees C were detected at times of 1, 6, 11, and 15 days by means of atomic absorption in a graphite furnace (GAAF). Moreover, cytocompatibility tests were carried out. Perfusion experiments were performed to evaluate morphometrically platelet interaction with the material and to explore the potential thrombogenicity. The results showed a good cytocompatibility between the material and the osteoblast-like cells. However, these anodization methods released between 2 and 10 times more nickel and chromium than the original stainless steel, depending on the method used. Besides, anodized samples shown an increase of the percentage of surface covered by platelets. Consequently, the anodization methods studied do not improve the long-term behavior of the stainless steel for its application as cardiovascular stents.


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Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional IMIM - Parc de Salut Mar